משתמשת:רונה ש/טיוטה

    מתוך ויקיפדיה, האנציקלופדיה החופשית

    תבנית:Infobox book

    משחקיהם של בני אדם: הפסיכולוגיה של יחסים בין בני אדם הוא ספרו רב המכר ספר של הפסיכיאטר אריק ברן. מאז פרסומו ב- 1964 נמכר הספר ביותר מחמישה מיליון עותקים. [1] בספר מתוארות אינטרקציות חברתיות מתפקדות וכאלו שאינן מתפקדות. Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships is a bestselling 1964 book by psychiatrist Eric Berne. Since its publication it has sold more than five million copies.[1] The book describes both functional and dysfunctional social interactions.

    סיכום[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

    במחצית הראשונה של הספר, ברן מציג מודל לניתוח עסקאות כדרך לפרש אינטראקציות חברתיות. הוא מתאר את שלושה תפקידים או מצבי אגו, הידוע בשם ההורים, מבוגרים, והילדים, ומניח כי ניתן לייחס הרבה התנהגויות שליליות למיתוג או לבלבול תפקידים אלה. הוא דן בנהלים, טקסים, ובילויים בהתנהגות חברתית, לאור שיטה זו של ניתוח. לדוגמא, בוס שמדבר אל צוות שלו כ 'הורה' שליטה לעתים קרובות לעורר-ביזה עצמית צייתנות, התפרצויות זעם, או תגובות ילדותיות אחרות מעובדיו.

    In the first half of the book, Berne introduces transactional analysis as a way of interpreting social interactions. He describes three roles or ego states, known as the Parent, the Adult, and the Child, and postulates that many negative behaviors can be traced to switching or confusion of these roles. He discusses procedures, rituals, and pastimes in social behavior, in light of this method of analysis. For example, a boss who talks to his staff as a controlling 'parent' will often engender self-abased obedience, tantrums, or other childlike responses from his employees.

    The second half of the book catalogues a series of "mind games" in which people interact through a patterned and predictable series of "transactions" which are superficially plausible (that is, they may appear normal to bystanders or even to the people involved), but which actually conceal motivations, include private significance to the parties involved, and lead to a well-defined predictable outcome, usually counterproductive. The book uses casual, often humorous phrases such as "See What You Made Me Do," "Why Don't You — Yes But," and "Ain't It Awful" as a way of briefly describing each game. In reality, the "winner" of a mind game is the person that returns to the Adult ego-state first.

    One example of these games is the one named "Now I've Got You, You Son of a Bitch," in which A is dealing with B, and A discovers B has made a minor mistake, and holds up a much larger and more serious issue until the mistake is fixed, basically holding the entire issue hostage to the minor mistake. The example is where a plumber makes a mistake on a $300 job by underestimating the price of a $3 part as $1. The customer won't pay the entire $300 unless and until the plumber absorbs the $2 error instead of just paying the bill of $300.

    Not all interactions or transactions are part of a game. Specifically, if both parties in a one-on-one conversation remain in an Adult-to-Adult ego-state, it is unlikely that a game is being played.

    Origins[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

    In the 1950s, Berne synthesized his theory of "human gaming" and built on work from Paul Federn and Edoardo Weiss and integrated results from Wilder Penfield to develop transactional analysis.[1] Transactional analysis, according to physician James R. Allen, is a "cognitive behavioral approach to treatment and ... a very effective way of dealing with internal models of self and others as well as other psychodynamic issues."[1]

    Influence[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

    In 1993, American therapist-turned-author James Redfield self-published The Celestine Prophecy influenced by the theory of Berne's human gaming. Specifically, the life games to which Berne refers in his book is a tool used in an individual's quest for energetic independence.

    References[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

    1. ^ 1 2 3 Berne, Eric (1964). Games People Play – The Basic Hand Book of Transactional Analysis. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-41003-3.

    External links[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]